The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act was signed into law Jan. 8, 2002. It was the first major overhaul in many years of the main body of federal law governing education, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). As the NCLB Act awaits reauthorization by Congress, the U.S. Department of Education has reverted back to using the term ESEA for the law. A major part of the NCLB Act deals with statewide testing and teacher quality. It sets aggressive targets for student achievement and teacher accountability.